Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Therapy (NORT) for Visual Snow Syndrome

Welcome to our guide on Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Therapy (NORT) for Visual Snow Syndrome (VSS). This guide will provide you with information about NORT, including what it is, how it works, and how it can help manage your VSS symptoms.

What is NORT?

Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Therapy (NORT) is a noninvasive individualized regime used to address visual deficits resulting from various conditions, including neurological disorders like VSS. NORT aims to retrain the neural processes of the brain related to visual function through the use of various specialized lenses, prisms, filters, and eye exercises. These are customized to each patient based on their specific symptoms and medical history. Research studies demonstrate that patients with VSS who did NORT have experienced symptom improvements in several areas. These include general vision, diplopia (double vision), palinopsia, perception of visual snow (VS) and other related visual disturbances, eye movement deficits, mental health, role difficulties, dependency, debilitation, social functioning, and overall quality of life. VSS patients have also reported improvements in their ability to drive, read, work, and effectively perform daily tasks from close-up or farther away. 

What does NORT involve?

The NORT protocol for VSS consists of 12 weeks of in-person, one-on-one sessions, each lasting 1 hour.

In-office examinations using optometric techniques are performed to evaluate the patient’s visual system and other aspects of vision including, ocular motility, fixation, and binocular vision. This can help identify any underlying issues that may be contributing to their symptoms.

Each session includes 3-5 exercises and at-home assignments. The home assignments are performed 5 days a week for 12 weeks and are monitored through follow-up visits. Exercises will be chosen by your physician based on your specific symptoms and medical history. 

For more details on the types of exercises that may be performed, please review the study by Dr. Charles Shidlofsky, Dr. Terry Tsang, and Vanessa Mora, “The efficacy of neuro-optometric visual rehabilitation therapy in patients with visual snow syndrome“, published in Frontiers in Neurology.

Who provides NORT?

NORT is delivered by a neuro-optometrist or a trained vision therapist (under the direction of a neuro-optometrist). Activities are customized for each patient to suit their individual needs and follow the activities within the listed protocol.

Note: When scheduling an appointment, confirm that the physician sees patients with VSS, understands the condition, and offers NORT to treat VSS symptoms.

How Can I Find a Doctor Who Provides NORT for VSS?

VSS-NORT Masterclasses for Physicians

Dr. Terry Tsang and Dr. Charles Shidlofsky host VSS Masterclasses around the world to educate physicians about the condition and teach them how to treat its symptoms using NORT. By training more physicians, they hope to improve access to NORT for individuals with VSS globally. Their VSS Masterclasses are affiliated with the Council on Optometric Practitioner Education (COPE), an accreditation program created by the Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry (ARBO) for optometric continuing education (CE) courses.

Doctors/Researchers with Expertise in VSS-NORT

Attended the VSS-NORT Physician Masterclass

Additional Resources


The Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Association (NORA) website also shares the names of other physicians that provide NORT. However, it is important to note that these physicians may not be familiar with VSS.


For people affected by VSS in Australia and New Zealand, the Australasian College of Behavioural Optometrists (ACBO) has a list of NORT for VSS-certified providers in Australia and New Zealand on their website.

VSI Directory

You can also access our list of VSS Physicians & Specialists below.

Be Part of the Solution

Support Visual Snow Syndrome Research

All donations to the Visual Snow Initiative go directly to Visual Snow Syndrome (VSS) research.

Your tax-deductible contribution ensures that global research will continue and makes a positive difference in the lives of people affected by VSS.